ODS file extension is used to store documents in OpenDocument
Spreadsheets format. OpenDocument Spreadsheets is part of generic OpenDocument
standard which defines a format to store spreadsheets, word processing
documents, charts and presentations in a ZIP-compressed XML format. OpenDocument
standard is frequently referred to as Open Document Format for Office
OpenDocument standard was developed and is managed by
Organization for Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). This
format was developed based on OpenOffice.org XML format used in OpenOffice.org
Typical ODS file will contain content.xml with actual
content of the spreadsheet, styles.xml with formatting styles used by the spreadsheet
and meta.xml with meta information about the spreadsheet. It also may contain Pictures
directory with pictures used in the spreadsheet.
You can open ODS file and edit it using many popular spreadsheets
editing software including Microsoft Excel, LibreOffice, KOffice, OpenOffice.org.
If you don’t want to install software locally to your
computer you can upload your ODS file to Google Docs, OneDrive or Dropbox and
edit it using online cloud spreadsheet editor. Uploading ODS file to the cloud is
also an easy way to send ODS file to a mobile device.
ODS files are transferred over internet using application/vnd.oasis.opendocument.spreadsheet
mime type. ODS files are typically compressed using DEFLATE algorithm and further
compression won’t get any significant benefit. OTS file extension is frequently
used in tandem with ODS and is used to store spreadsheet templates. ODS files
could be password protected and encrypted.
EPUB file extension is used to store e-books in EPUB file
format. EPUB is short for electronic publication and is a technical specification
developed by International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). EPUB file format is
quite popular and is supported by many e-book readers and e-book software.
EPUB file is a compressed folder which stores files with
e-book contents and layout. In some way it is easy to compare EPUB file to a
small website with e-book as a content. Actual text of the e-book is stored inside
one or multiple XHTML file. XHTML files could be rendered by a web browser if
needed. E-book contents is stored in OPF file (typically as a content.opf). OPF
is an XML based format which stores references, font and styling information
related to each chapter of the book. Also, it stores e-book identification information
such as ISBN, author and language of the book.
You can open EPUB file on Windows or Linux using free and
open source Calibre e-book reader. Calibre also can process EPUB files and
convert them to a different e-book format. This may be required to view EPUB
file on Amazon Kindle device. Even though EPUB is technically supported by Amazon
Kindle, there are several limitations to how EPUB file should be structured.
That is why it may be easier to convert EPUB file to a different format such as
MOBI, RTF, HMTML or PDF for better Amazon Kindle experience.
To open EPUB file on a mobile platform you can use Apple
Books for iOS and Aldiko for Android. Or you can also use Bluefire Reader
supported both on iOS and Android operating systems.
EPUB files are save for download and don’t contain scripts.
You may open EPUB files downloaded from the internet without being afraid to
infect your computer.
PRN file extension is used by files which contain printing
instructions for a specific printer. PRN files could be produced by different applications.
PRN file is generated when user selects “Print to File…” option from the
printing dialog and clicks on OK button. Operating system will ask for PRN file
name and will save printing instructions to the selected file name.
PRN file contains printing instructions in a language used by
a printer set as a target when “Print to File…” was selected. Depending on a
printer and printer driver PRN file could contain instructions in Postscript,
PCL, HP/GL, ESC/P, ESC/P2, RPCS, Prescribe and many more.
If your PRN file was generated for a postscript printer then
you can open it via Ghostscript or Adobe Distiller. You may have to change PRN
file extension to a PS in order to be able to open PRN file. Below is an
example on how to convert PRN file in postscript format to PDF:
gswin32c.exe -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=pdfwrite
If PRN file was generated for a PCL printer you may use GhostPCL
utility to convert it to PDF. Below is an example on how to convert PRN file in
PCL format to PDF:
pcl6 -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -sOutputFile=output.pdf input.prn
You can also open PRN file by printing it. To do this click
right mouse button on PRN file in question and select “Microsoft Office Document
PRN files may be useful when something is not working well
on a printer. In that case you may generate PRN file and send it to a customer
service department of printer vendor.
PRN files are not dangerous as they only can contain printer
specific instructions. It is safe to open PRN files on your computer.
EPS file extension is used by files in encapsulated
postscript format. Encapsulated postscript file format was designed to be embedded
inside the postscript files. Still it is possible to open EPS file without having
it embedded into another document.
To open EPS file and view its contents you can use free
Ghostscript software. Ghostscript will execute postscript commands and rasterize
contents of EPS file. You can also rasterize EPS file using GIMP, Adobe Reader
or Irfan View.
If you don’t want to rasterize EPS file but edit it in vector
form, you can use CorelDraw or Adobe Illustrator. Both of these applications
will open EPS file in a vector format giving user full flexibility in editing
its content and saving it back to EPS or exporting to other supported formats.
Files in EPS format are sent over internet using application/postscript,
application/eps, application/x-eps, image/eps, image/x-eps mime types.
EPS file standard requires it to draw its contents within
specific boundaries defined in %%BoundingBox line. EPS file without %%BoundingBox
command considered invalid. Also, many EPS files will contain a preview picture
which will be used by embedding software during image browsing process. EPS
files are not supposed to be edited after being embedded. Still they support transformations
such as scaling, tilting and rotating the image.
Due to the use of postscript commands EPS file is device independent
and can be rendered on any device. But it requires postscript rendering engine
to be installed.
EPS file must conform to Document Structuring Conventions
(DSC) which is a set of comments allowing to structure postscript documents so
they could be manipulated without executing postscript commands.
Technically because EPS file is a fully featured scripting
language it can contain malicious code but since rendering of EPS file happens
within postscript processing software it limits potential attach exposure. That’s
why in general EPS files are considered to be safe for download.
CAJ file extensions is used by China Academic Journals
full-text database file publishing format.
China Academic Journal Articles. It is a format similar to
PDF but it was specifically created for use by China Academic Journals (CNKI
Alternatively, CAJ file could be generated by Autodesk Fabrication Products. CAJ file or Archived Job File will contain a full fabrication job details including a database of all settings of the Fabrication Products. Having settings in the file are frequently required when the job is transferred to another location or to a technical support representative.
To open CAJ file from China Academic Journals you can use CAJ Viewer . CAJ Viewer is a software similar to Adobe Acrobat Reader. It can open CAJ file, render page layout, perform operations with pages such as changing pages orientation, printing the file or exporting it. China Academic Journals is the only known provider of CAJ files and their contents are typically limited to articles originated from China.
To open CAJ files generated by Autodesk Fabrication Products
you can use Autodesk Revit. Besides CAJ files, MAJ and ESJ files are frequently
used to export information from Autodesk Fabrication Products software to